Web 身份验证 API

Secure context
This feature is available only in secure contexts (HTTPS), in some or all supporting browsers .

The Web Authentication API is an extension of the 证书管理 API that enables strong authentication with public key cryptography, enabling passwordless authentication and/or secure second-factor authentication without SMS texts.

Web authentication concepts and usage

The Web Authentication API (also referred to as WebAuthn) uses asymmetric (public-key) cryptography instead of passwords or SMS texts for registering, authenticating, and second-factor authentication with websites. This resolves significant security problems related to phishing , data breaches , and attacks against SMS texts or other second-factor authentication methods while at the same time significantly increasing ease of use (since users don't have to manage dozens of increasingly complicated passwords).

Many websites already have pages that allow users to register new accounts or sign in to an existing account, and the Web Authentication API acts as a replacement or supplement to those on those existing webpages. Similar to the other forms of the 证书管理 API , the Web Authentication API has two basic methods that correspond to register and login:

  • navigator.credentials.create() - when used with the publicKey option, creates new credentials, either for registering a new account or for associating a new asymmetric key pair credentials with an existing account.
  • navigator.credentials.get() - when used with the publicKey option, uses an existing set of credentials to authenticate to a service, either logging a user in or as a form of second-factor authentication.

Please note: both create() and get() require a Secure Context (e.g. - the server is connected by https or is the localhost), and will not be available for use if the browser is not operating in a secure context.

In their most basic forms, both create() and get() receive a very large random number called a challenge from the server and they return the challenge signed by the private key back to the server. This proves to the server that a user is in possession of the private key required for authentication without revealing any secrets over the network.

In order to understand how the create() and get() methods fit into the bigger picture, it is important to understand that they sit between two components that are outside the browser:

  1. Server - the Web Authentication API is intended to register new credentials on a server (also referred to as a service or a relying party ) and later use those same credentials on that same server to authenticate a user.
  2. Authenticator - the credentials are created and stored in a device called an authenticator. This is a new concept in authentication: when authenticating using passwords, the password is stored in a user's brain and no other device is needed; when authenticating using web authentication, the password is replaced with a key pair that is stored in an authenticator. The authenticator may be embedded into an operating system, such as Windows Hello, or may be a physical token, such as a USB or Bluetooth Security Key.

Registration

A typical registration process has six steps, as illustrated in Figure 1 and described further below. This is a simplification of the data required for the registration process that is only intended to provide an overview. The full set of required fields, optional fields, and their meanings for creating a registration request can be found in the PublicKeyCredentialCreationOptions dictionary. Likewise, the full set of response fields can be found in the PublicKeyCredential interface (where PublicKeyCredential.response is the AuthenticatorAttestationResponse interface). Note most JavaScript programmers that are creating an application will only really care about steps 1 and 5 where the create() function is called and subsequently returns; however, steps 2, 3, and 4 are essential to understanding the processing that takes place in the browser and authenticator and what the resulting data means.

Web Authentication API registration component and dataflow diagram

Figure 1 - a diagram showing the sequence of actions for a web authentication registration and the essential data associated with each action.

The registration steps are:

  1. Application Requests Registration - The application makes the initial registration request. The protocol and format of this request is outside of the scope of the Web Authentication API.
  2. Server Sends Challenge, User Info, and Relying Party Info - The server sends a challenge, user information, and relying party information to the JavaScript program. The protocol for communicating with the server is not specified and is outside of the scope of the Web Authentication API. Typically, server communications would be REST over https (probably using XMLHttpRequest or Fetch ), but they could also be SOAP , RFC 2549 or nearly any other protocol provided that the protocol is secure. The parameters received from the server will be passed to the create() call, typically with little or no modification and returns a Promise that will resolve to a PublicKeyCredential containing an AuthenticatorAttestationResponse . Note that it is absolutely critical that the challenge be a buffer of random information (at least 16 bytes) and it MUST be generated on the server in order to ensure the security of the registration process.
  3. Browser Calls authenticatorMakeCredential() on Authenticator - Internally, the browser will validate the parameters and fill in any defaults, which become the AuthenticatorResponse.clientDataJSON . One of the most important parameters is the origin, which is recorded as part of the clientData so that the origin can be verified by the server later. The parameters to the create() call are passed to the authenticator, along with a SHA-256 hash of the clientDataJSON (only a hash is sent because the link to the authenticator may be a low-bandwidth NFC or Bluetooth link and the authenticator is just going to sign over the hash to ensure that it isn't tampered with).
  4. Authenticator Creates New Key Pair and Attestation - Before doing anything, the authenticator will typically ask for some form of user verification. This could be entering a PIN, using a fingerprint, doing an iris scan, etc. to prove that the user is present and consenting to the registration. After the user verification, the authenticator will create a new asymmetric key pair and safely store the private key for future reference. The public key will become part of the attestation, which the authenticator will sign over with a private key that was burned into the authenticator during its manufacturing process and that has a certificate chain that can be validated back to a root of trust.
  5. Authenticator Returns Data to Browser - The new public key, a globally unique credential id, and other attestation data are returned to the browser where they become the attestationObject.
  6. Browser Creates Final Data, Application sends response to Server - The create() Promise resolves to an PublicKeyCredential , which has a PublicKeyCredential.rawId that is the globally unique credential id along with a response that is the AuthenticatorAttestationResponse containing the AuthenticatorResponse.clientDataJSON and AuthenticatorAttestationResponse.attestationObject PublicKeyCredential is sent back to the server using any desired formatting and protocol (note that the ArrayBuffer properties need to be be base64 encoded or similar).
  7. Server Validates and Finalizes Registration - Finally, the server is required to perform a series of checks to ensure that the registration was complete and not tampered with. These include:
    1. Verifying that the challenge is the same as the challenge that was sent
    2. Ensuring that the origin was the origin expected
    3. Validating that the signature over the clientDataHash and the attestation using the certificate chain for that specific model of the authenticator
    A complete list of validation steps can be found in the Web Authentication API specification . Assuming that the checks pan out, the server will store the new public key associated with the user's account for future use -- that is, whenever the user desires to use the public key for authentication.

Authentication

After a user has registered with web authentication, they can subsequently authenticate (a.k.a. - login or sign-in) with the service. The authentication flow looks similar to the registration flow, and the illustration of actions in Figure 2 may be recognizable as being similar to the illustration of registration actions in Figure 1. The primary differences between registration and authentication are that: 1) authentication doesn't require user or relying party information; and 2) authentication creates an assertion using the previously generated key pair for the service rather than creating an attestation with the key pair that was burned into the authenticator during manufacturing. Again, the description of authentication below is a broad overview rather than getting into all the options and features of the Web Authentication API. The specific options for authenticating can be found in the PublicKeyCredentialRequestOptions dictionary, and the resulting data can be found in the PublicKeyCredential interface (where PublicKeyCredential.response is the AuthenticatorAssertionResponse interface) .

WebAuthn authentication component and dataflow diagram

Figure 2 - similar to Figure 1, a diagram showing the sequence of actions for a web authentication and the essential data associated with each action.

  1. Application Requests Authentication - The application makes the initial authentication request. The protocol and format of this request is outside of the scope of the Web Authentication API.
  2. Server Sends Challenge - The server sends a challenge to the JavaScript program. The protocol for communicating with the server is not specified and is outside of the scope of the Web Authentication API. Typically, server communications would be REST over https (probably using XMLHttpRequest or Fetch ), but they could also be SOAP , RFC 2549 or nearly any other protocol provided that the protocol is secure. The parameters received from the server will be passed to the get() call, typically with little or no modification. Note that it is absolutely critical that the challenge be a buffer of random information (at least 16 bytes) and it MUST be generated on the server in order to ensure the security of the authentication process.
  3. Browser Calls authenticatorGetCredential() on Authenticator - Internally, the browser will validate the parameters and fill in any defaults, which become the AuthenticatorResponse.clientDataJSON . One of the most important parameters is the origin, which recorded as part of the clientData so that the origin can be verified by the server later. The parameters to the get() call are passed to the authenticator, along with a SHA-256 hash of the clientDataJSON (only a hash is sent because the link to the authenticator may be a low-bandwidth NFC or Bluetooth link and the authenticator is just going to sign over the hash to ensure that it isn't tampered with).
  4. Authenticator Creates an Assertion - The authenticator finds a credential for this service that matches the Relying Party ID and prompts a user to consent to the authentication. Assuming both of those steps are successful, the authenticator will create a new assertion by signing over the clientDataHash and authenticatorData with the private key generated for this account during the registration call.
  5. Authenticator Returns Data to Browser - The authenticator returns the authenticatorData and assertion signature back to the browser.
  6. Browser Creates Final Data, Application sends response to Server - The browser resolves the Promise to a PublicKeyCredential 采用 PublicKeyCredential.response that contains the AuthenticatorAssertionResponse . It is up to the JavaScript application to transmit this data back to the server using any protocol and format of its choice.
  7. Server Validates and Finalizes Authentication - Upon receiving the result of the authentication request, the server performs validation of the response such as:
    1. Using the public key that was stored during the registration request to validate the signature by the authenticator.
    2. Ensuring that the challenge that was signed by the authenticator matches the challenge that was generated by the server.
    3. Checking that the Relying Party ID is the one expected for this service.
    A full list of the steps for validating an assertion can be found in the Web Authentication API specification . Assuming the validation is successful, the server will note that the user is now authenticated. This is outside the scope of the Web Authentication API specification, but one option would be to drop a new cookie for the user session.

接口

Credential
Provides information about an entity as a prerequisite to a trust decision.
CredentialsContainer
Exposes methods to request credentials and notify the user agent when events such as successful sign in or sign out happen. This interface is accessible from Navigator.credentials . The Web Authentication specification adds a publicKey member to the create() and get() methods to either create a new public key pair or get an authentication for a key pair, repsectively.
PublicKeyCredential
Provides information about a public key / private key pair, which is a credential for logging in to a service using an un-phishable and data-breach resistant asymmetric key pair instead of a password.
AuthenticatorResponse
The base interface for AuthenticatorAttestationResponse and AuthenticatorAssertionResponse , which provide a cryptographic root of trust for a key pair. Returned by CredentialsContainer.create() and CredentialsContainer.get() , respectively, the child interfaces include information from the browser such as the challenge origin. Either may be returned from PublicKeyCredential.response .
AuthenticatorAttestationResponse
Returned by CredentialsContainer.create() when a PublicKeyCredential is passed, and provides a cryptographic root of trust for the new key pair that has been generated.
AuthenticatorAssertionResponse
Returned by CredentialsContainer.get() when a PublicKeyCredential is passed, and provides proof to a service that it has a key pair and that the authentication request is valid and approved.

选项

PublicKeyCredentialCreationOptions
The options passed to CredentialsContainer.create() .
PublicKeyCredentialRequestOptions
The options passed to CredentialsContainer.get() .

范例

For security reasons, web authentication calls ( create() and get() ) are cancelled if the browser window loses focus while the call is pending.

// sample arguments for registration
var createCredentialDefaultArgs = {
    publicKey: {
        // Relying Party (a.k.a. - Service):
        rp: {
            name: "Acme"
        },
        // User:
        user: {
            id: new Uint8Array(16),
            name: "john.p.smith@example.com",
            displayName: "John P. Smith"
        },
        pubKeyCredParams: [{
            type: "public-key",
            alg: -7
        }],
        attestation: "direct",
        timeout: 60000,
        challenge: new Uint8Array([ // must be a cryptographically random number sent from a server
            0x8C, 0x0A, 0x26, 0xFF, 0x22, 0x91, 0xC1, 0xE9, 0xB9, 0x4E, 0x2E, 0x17, 0x1A, 0x98, 0x6A, 0x73,
            0x71, 0x9D, 0x43, 0x48, 0xD5, 0xA7, 0x6A, 0x15, 0x7E, 0x38, 0x94, 0x52, 0x77, 0x97, 0x0F, 0xEF
        ]).buffer
    }
};
// sample arguments for login
var getCredentialDefaultArgs = {
    publicKey: {
        timeout: 60000,
        // allowCredentials: [newCredential] // see below
        challenge: new Uint8Array([ // must be a cryptographically random number sent from a server
            0x79, 0x50, 0x68, 0x71, 0xDA, 0xEE, 0xEE, 0xB9, 0x94, 0xC3, 0xC2, 0x15, 0x67, 0x65, 0x26, 0x22,
            0xE3, 0xF3, 0xAB, 0x3B, 0x78, 0x2E, 0xD5, 0x6F, 0x81, 0x26, 0xE2, 0xA6, 0x01, 0x7D, 0x74, 0x50
        ]).buffer
    },
};
// register / create a new credential
navigator.credentials.create(createCredentialDefaultArgs)
    .then((cred) => {
        console.log("NEW CREDENTIAL", cred);
        // normally the credential IDs available for an account would come from a server
        // but we can just copy them from above...
        var idList = [{
            id: cred.rawId,
            transports: ["usb", "nfc", "ble"],
            type: "public-key"
        }];
        getCredentialDefaultArgs.publicKey.allowCredentials = idList;
        return navigator.credentials.get(getCredentialDefaultArgs);
    })
    .then((assertion) => {
        console.log("ASSERTION", assertion);
    })
    .catch((err) => {
        console.log("ERROR", err);
    });
					

规范

规范 状态 Comment
Web Authentication: An API for accessing Public Key Credentials Level 1 Recommendation 初始定义。

浏览器兼容性

Credential

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Credential
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id
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name (from CredentialUserData mixin)
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Bug 602980 .
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不支持 5.0 — 6.0
Bug 602980 .
type
Chrome 51 Edge 18 Firefox 60 IE ? Opera Yes Safari 13 WebView Android 51 Chrome Android 51 Firefox Android Yes Opera Android ? Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android 5.0

图例

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实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
见实现注意事项。

CredentialsContainer

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CredentialsContainer
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create
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get
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preventSilentAccess
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Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: requireUserMediation
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Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: requireUserMediation
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Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: requireUserMediation
Firefox Android Yes Opera Android No Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android 8.0
8.0
不支持 5.0 — 8.0
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: requireUserMediation
store
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图例

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实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
使用非标名称。

PublicKeyCredential

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PublicKeyCredential Chrome 67
67
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Disabled
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
getClientExtensionResults Chrome 67
67
65
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
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Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
isUserVerifyingPlatformAuthenticatorAvailable Chrome 67
67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
rawId Chrome 67
67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
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response Chrome 67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
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图例

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见实现注意事项。
用户必须明确启用此特征。
用户必须明确启用此特征。

AuthenticatorResponse

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AuthenticatorResponse Chrome 67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
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clientDataJSON Chrome 67
67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
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IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
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Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No

图例

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见实现注意事项。
用户必须明确启用此特征。
用户必须明确启用此特征。

AuthenticatorAttestationResponse

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AuthenticatorAttestationResponse Chrome 67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
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attestationObject Chrome 67
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getTransports
Chrome No Edge No Firefox No IE No Opera No Safari No WebView Android No Chrome Android No Firefox Android No Opera Android No Safari iOS No Samsung Internet Android No

图例

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实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
见实现注意事项。
用户必须明确启用此特征。
用户必须明确启用此特征。

AuthenticatorAssertionResponse

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AuthenticatorAssertionResponse Chrome 67
67
65
Disabled
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
authenticatorData Chrome 67
67
65
Disabled
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
signature Chrome 67
67
65
Disabled
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
userHandle Chrome 67
67
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the Web 身份验证 API preference (needs to be set to Enabled ). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge 18 Firefox 60
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Only supports USB U2F tokens.
IE No Opera No Safari 13 WebView Android 70 Chrome Android 70 Firefox Android 60
60
Only supports USB U2F tokens.
Opera Android No Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No

图例

完整支持
完整支持
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不支持
见实现注意事项。
用户必须明确启用此特征。
用户必须明确启用此特征。

PublicKeyCredentialCreationOptions

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PublicKeyCredentialCreationOptions
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attestation
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authenticatorSelection
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challenge
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excludeCredentials
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extensions
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pubKeyCredParams
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rp
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timeout
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user
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实验。期望将来行为有所改变。

PublicKeyCredentialRequestOptions

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PublicKeyCredentialRequestOptions
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allowCredentials
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challenge
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extensions
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rpId
Chrome 67 Edge ≤79 Firefox 60 IE ? Opera Yes Safari 13 WebView Android 67 Chrome Android 67 Firefox Android ? Opera Android Yes Safari iOS 13.3 Samsung Internet Android No
timeout
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userVerification
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图例

完整支持
完整支持
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兼容性未知
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。

另请参阅