WebVR API

弃用
This feature is no longer recommended. Though some browsers might still support it, it may have already been removed from the relevant web standards, may be in the process of being dropped, or may only be kept for compatibility purposes. Avoid using it, and update existing code if possible; see the compatibility table at the bottom of this page to guide your decision. Be aware that this feature may cease to work at any time.

注意: WebVR API is replaced by WebXR API . WebVR was never ratified as a standard, was implemented and enabled by default in very few browsers and supported a small number of devices.

WebVR provides support for exposing virtual reality devices — for example, head-mounted displays like the Oculus Rift or HTC Vive — to web apps, enabling developers to translate position and movement information from the display into movement around a 3D scene. This has numerous, interesting applications, from virtual product tours and interactive training apps to immersive first-person games.

概念和用法

Any VR devices attached to your computer will be returned by the Navigator.getVRDisplays() method; each one will be represented by a VRDisplay 对象。

Sketch of a person in a chair with wearing goggles labelled "Head mounted display (HMD)" facing a monitor with a webcam labelled "Position sensor"

VRDisplay is the central interface in the WebVR API — via its properties and methods you can access functionality to:

  • Retrieve useful information to allow us to identify the display, what capabilities it has, controllers associated with it, and more.
  • Retrieve frame data for each frame of content you you want to present in a display, and submit those frames for display at a consistent rate.
  • Start and stop presenting to the display.

A typical (simple) WebVR app would work like so:

  1. Navigator.getVRDisplays() is used to get a reference to your VR display.
  2. VRDisplay.requestPresent() is used to start presenting to the VR display.
  3. WebVR's dedicated VRDisplay.requestAnimationFrame() method is used to run the app's rendering loop at the correct refresh rate for the display.
  4. Inside the rendering loop, you grab the data required to display the current frame ( VRDisplay.getFrameData() ), draw the displayed scene twice — once for the view in each eye, then submit the rendered view to the display to show to the user ( VRDisplay.submitFrame() ).

In addition, WebVR 1.1 adds a number of events on the Window object to allow JavaScript to respond to changes to the status of the display.

注意 : You can find a lot more out about how the API works in our Using the WebVR API and WebVR Concepts articles.

API availability

The WebVR API, which was never ratified as a web standard, has been deprecated in favor of the WebXR API , which is well on track toward finishing the standardization process. As such, you should try to update existing code to use the newer API instead. Generally the transition should be fairly painless.

Additionally, on some devices and/or browsers, WebVR requires that the page be loaded using a secure context, over an HTTPS connection. If the page is not fully secure, the WebVR methods and functions will not be available. You can easily test for this by checking to see if the Navigator method getVRDisplays() is NULL :

if (!navigator.getVRDisplays) {
  console.error("WebVR is not available");
} else {
  /* Use WebVR */
}
					

Using controllers: Combining WebVR with the Gamepad API

Many WebVR hardware setups feature controllers that go along with the headset. These can be used in WebVR apps via the 手柄 API , and specifically the Gamepad Extensions API that adds API features for accessing controller pose , haptic actuators ,等。

注意 : Our Using VR controllers with WebVR article explains the basics of how to use VR controllers with WebVR apps.

WebVR interfaces

VRDisplay
Represents any VR device supported by this API. It includes generic information such as device IDs and descriptions, as well as methods for starting to present a VR scene, retrieving eye parameters and display capabilities, and other important functionality.
VRDisplayCapabilities
Describes the capabilities of a VRDisplay — it's features can be used to perform VR device capability tests, for example can it return position information.
VRDisplayEvent
Represents the event object of WebVR-related events (see the window object extensions listed below).
VRFrameData
Represents all the information needed to render a single frame of a VR scene; constructed by VRDisplay.getFrameData() .
VRPose
Represents the position state at a given timestamp (which includes orientation, position, velocity, and acceleration.)
VREyeParameters
Provides access to all the information required to correctly render a scene for each given eye, including field of view information.
VRFieldOfView
Represents a field of view defined by 4 different degree values describing the view from a center point.
VRLayerInit
Represents a layer to be presented in a VRDisplay .
VRStageParameters
Represents the values describing the the stage area for devices that support room-scale experiences.

Extensions to other interfaces

The WebVR API extends the following APIs, adding the listed features.

Gamepad

Gamepad.displayId 只读
返回 VRDisplay.displayId of the associated VRDisplay — the VRDisplay that the gamepad is controlling the displayed scene of.
Navigator.activeVRDisplays 只读
Returns an array containing every VRDisplay object that is currently presenting ( VRDisplay.ispresenting is true ).
Navigator.getVRDisplays()
Returns a promise that resolves to an array of VRDisplay objects representing any available VR displays connected to the computer.

Window events

Window.onvrdisplaypresentchange
Represents an event handler that will run when the presenting state of a VR display changes — i.e. goes from presenting to not presenting or vice versa (when the vrdisplaypresentchange event fires).
Window.onvrdisplayconnect
Represents an event handler that will run when a compatible VR display has been connected to the computer (when the vrdisplayconnect event fires).
Window.onvrdisplaydisconnect
Represents an event handler that will run when a compatible VR display has been disconnected from the computer (when the vrdisplaydisconnect event fires).
Window.onvrdisplayactivate
Represents an event handler that will run when a display is able to be presented to (when the vrdisplayactivate event fires), for example if an HMD has been moved to bring it out of standby, or woken up by being put on.
Window.onvrdisplaydeactivate
Represents an event handler that will run when a display can no longer be presented to (when the vrdisplaydeactivate event fires), for example if an HMD has gone into standby or sleep mode due to a period of inactivity.
Window.onvrdisplayblur
Represents an event handler that will run when presentation to a display has been paused for some reason by the browser, OS, or VR hardware (when the vrdisplayblur event fires) — for example, while the user is interacting with a system menu or browser, to prevent tracking or loss of experience.
Window.onvrdisplayfocus
Represents an event handler that will run when presentation to a display has resumed after being blurred (when the vrdisplayfocus event fires).

范例

You can find a number of examples at these locations:

规范

规范 状态 Comment
Gamepad Extensions 编者草案 Defines the Experimental Gamepad extensions .
WebVR 1.1 草案 初始定义。

浏览器兼容性

更新 GitHub 上的兼容性数据
Desktop Mobile
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
getVRDisplays
弃用
Chrome 不支持 No
注意事项
No
注意事项
Available on all platforms behind a flag, but currently only works on desktop in an experimental version of Chrome (other builds won't return any devices when Navigator.getVRDisplays() is invoked).
Edge 不支持 15 — 79 Firefox 55
注意事项
55
注意事项
Windows support was enabled in Firefox 55.
64
注意事项
macOS support was enabled in Firefox 64.
IE 不支持 No Opera 不支持 No Safari 不支持 No WebView Android 不支持 ? — 80 Chrome Android 不支持 ? — 80
注意事项
? — 80
注意事项
Currently supported only by Google Daydream.
Firefox Android 55 Opera Android 不支持 No Safari iOS 不支持 No Samsung Internet Android 不支持 No

图例

完整支持
完整支持
不支持
不支持
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
实验。期望将来行为有所改变。
弃用。不要用于新网站。
弃用。不要用于新网站。
见实现注意事项。

另请参阅