super

super keyword is used to access and call functions on an object's parent.

super.prop and super[expr] expressions are valid in any method definition in both and object literals .

句法

super([arguments]); // calls the parent constructor.
super.functionOnParent([arguments]);
					

描述

When used in a constructor, the super keyword appears alone and must be used before the this keyword is used. The super keyword can also be used to call functions on a parent object.

范例

使用 super in classes

This code snippet is taken from the classes sample ( live demo ). Here super() is called to avoid duplicating the constructor parts' that are common between Rectangle and Square .

class Rectangle {
  constructor(height, width) {
    this.name = 'Rectangle';
    this.height = height;
    this.width = width;
  }
  sayName() {
    console.log('Hi, I am a ', this.name + '.');
  }
  get area() {
    return this.height * this.width;
  }
  set area(value) {
    this._area = value;
  }
}
class Square extends Rectangle {
  constructor(length) {
    this.height; // ReferenceError, super needs to be called first!
    // Here, it calls the parent class's constructor with lengths
    // provided for the Rectangle's width and height
    super(length, length);
    // Note: In derived classes, super() must be called before you
    // can use 'this'. Leaving this out will cause a reference error.
    this.name = 'Square';
  }
}
					

Super-calling static methods

You are also able to call super on static 方法。

class Rectangle {
  constructor() {}
  static logNbSides() {
    return 'I have 4 sides';
  }
}
class Square extends Rectangle {
  constructor() {}
  static logDescription() {
    return super.logNbSides() + ' which are all equal';
  }
}
Square.logDescription(); // 'I have 4 sides which are all equal'
					

Deleting super properties will throw an error

You cannot use the delete operator and super.prop or super[expr] to delete a parent class' property, it will throw a ReferenceError .

class Base {
  constructor() {}
  foo() {}
}
class Derived extends Base {
  constructor() {}
  delete() {
    delete super.foo; // this is bad
  }
}
new Derived().delete(); // ReferenceError: invalid delete involving 'super'.
					

super.prop cannot overwrite non-writable properties

When defining non-writable properties with e.g. Object.defineProperty , super cannot overwrite the value of the property.

class X {
  constructor() {
    Object.defineProperty(this, 'prop', {
      configurable: true,
      writable: false,
      value: 1
    });
  }
}
class Y extends X {
  constructor() {
    super();
  }
  foo() {
    super.prop = 2;   // Cannot overwrite the value.
  }
}
var y = new Y();
y.foo(); // TypeError: "prop" is read-only
console.log(y.prop); // 1
					

使用 super.prop in object literals

Super can also be used in the object initializer / literal notation. In this example, two objects define a method. In the second object, super calls the first object's method. This works with the help of Object.setPrototypeOf() with which we are able to set the prototype of obj2 to obj1 , so that super is able to find method1 on obj1 .

var obj1 = {
  method1() {
    console.log('method 1');
  }
}
var obj2 = {
  method2() {
    super.method1();
  }
}
Object.setPrototypeOf(obj2, obj1);
obj2.method2(); // logs "method 1"
					

规范

规范
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'super' in that specification.

浏览器兼容性

更新 GitHub 上的兼容性数据
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Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet Node.js
super Chrome 42 Edge 13 Firefox 45 IE No Opera 29 Safari 7 WebView Android 42 Chrome Android 42 Firefox Android 45 Opera Android 29 Safari iOS 7 Samsung Internet Android 4.0 nodejs 6.0.0

图例

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另请参阅

Metadata

  1. JavaScript
  2. 教程:
  3. 完整初学者
    1. JavaScript 基础
    2. JavaScript 第一步
    3. JavaScript 构建块
    4. 引入 JavaScript 对象
  4. JavaScript 指南
    1. 介绍
    2. 语法和类型
    3. 控制流程和错误处理
    4. 循环和迭代
    5. 函数
    6. 表达式和运算符
    7. 数字和日期
    8. 文本格式
    9. 正则表达式
    10. Indexed collections
    11. Keyed collections
    12. Working with objects
    13. 对象模型的细节
    14. Using promises
    15. 迭代器和生成器
    16. Meta programming
    17. JavaScript 模块
  5. 中间体
    1. Client-side JavaScript frameworks
    2. 客户端侧 Web API
    3. 重新介绍 JavaScript
    4. JavaScript 数据结构
    5. 相等比较和相同
    6. 闭包
  6. 高级
    1. 继承和原型链
    2. 严格模式
    3. JavaScript 类型数组
    4. 内存管理
    5. 并发模型和事件循环
  7. 参考:
  8. 内置对象
    1. AggregateError
    2. Array
    3. ArrayBuffer
    4. AsyncFunction
    5. Atomics
    6. BigInt
    7. BigInt64Array
    8. BigUint64Array
    9. Boolean
    10. DataView
    11. Date
    12. Error
    13. EvalError
    14. FinalizationRegistry
    15. Float32Array
    16. Float64Array
    17. Function
    18. Generator
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    20. Infinity
    21. Int16Array
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    24. InternalError
    25. Intl
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    33. Proxy
    34. RangeError
    35. ReferenceError
    36. Reflect
    37. RegExp
    38. Set
    39. SharedArrayBuffer
    40. String
    41. Symbol
    42. SyntaxError
    43. TypeError
    44. TypedArray
    45. URIError
    46. Uint16Array
    47. Uint32Array
    48. Uint8Array
    49. Uint8ClampedArray
    50. WeakMap
    51. WeakRef
    52. WeakSet
    53. WebAssembly
    54. decodeURI()
    55. decodeURIComponent()
    56. encodeURI()
    57. encodeURIComponent()
    58. escape()
    59. eval()
    60. globalThis
    61. isFinite()
    62. isNaN()
    63. null
    64. parseFloat()
    65. parseInt()
    66. undefined
    67. unescape()
    68. uneval()
  9. 表达式 & 运算符
    1. Addition (+)
    2. Addition assignment (+=)
    3. Assignment (=)
    4. Bitwise AND (&)
    5. Bitwise AND assignment (&=)
    6. Bitwise NOT (~)
    7. Bitwise OR (|)
    8. Bitwise OR assignment (|=)
    9. Bitwise XOR (^)
    10. Bitwise XOR assignment (^=)
    11. Comma operator (,)
    12. 条件 (三元) 运算符
    13. Decrement (--)
    14. Destructuring assignment
    15. Division (/)
    16. Division assignment (/=)
    17. Equality (==)
    18. Exponentiation (**)
    19. Exponentiation assignment (**=)
    20. Function expression
    21. Greater than (>)
    22. Greater than or equal (>=)
    23. Grouping operator ( )
    24. Increment (++)
    25. Inequality (!=)
    26. Left shift (<<)
    27. Left shift assignment (<<=)
    28. Less than (<)
    29. Less than or equal (<=)
    30. Logical AND (&&)
    31. Logical AND assignment (&&=)
    32. Logical NOT (!)
    33. Logical OR (||)
    34. Logical OR assignment (||=)
    35. Logical nullish assignment (??=)
    36. Multiplication (*)
    37. Multiplication assignment (*=)
    38. Nullish coalescing operator (??)
    39. Object initializer
    40. 运算符优先级
    41. Optional chaining (?.)
    42. Pipeline operator (|>)
    43. 特性访问器
    44. Remainder (%)
    45. Remainder assignment (%=)
    46. Right shift (>>)
    47. Right shift assignment (>>=)
    48. Spread syntax (...)
    49. Strict equality (===)
    50. Strict inequality (!==)
    51. Subtraction (-)
    52. Subtraction assignment (-=)
    53. Unary negation (-)
    54. Unary plus (+)
    55. Unsigned right shift (>>>)
    56. Unsigned right shift assignment (>>>=)
    57. 异步函数表达式
    58. await
    59. class expression
    60. delete operator
    61. function* 表达式
    62. in operator
    63. instanceof
    64. new operator
    65. new.target
    66. super
    67. this
    68. typeof
    69. void 运算符
    70. yield
    71. yield*
  10. 语句 & 声明
    1. async function
    2. block
    3. break
    4. class
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    6. continue
    7. debugger
    8. do...while
    9. empty
    10. export
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  11. 函数
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    2. 默认参数
    3. 方法定义
    4. 其余参数
    5. 自变量对象
    6. getter
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    1. Private class fields
    2. Public class fields
    3. 构造函数
    4. extends
    5. static
  12. 错误
    1. Error: Permission denied to access property "x"
    2. InternalError: too much recursion
    3. RangeError: argument is not a valid code point
    4. RangeError: invalid array length
    5. RangeError: invalid date
    6. RangeError: precision is out of range
    7. RangeError: radix must be an integer
    8. RangeError: repeat count must be less than infinity
    9. RangeError: repeat count must be non-negative
    10. ReferenceError: "x" is not defined
    11. ReferenceError: assignment to undeclared variable "x"
    12. ReferenceError: can't access lexical declaration`X' before initialization
    13. ReferenceError: deprecated caller or arguments usage
    14. ReferenceError: invalid assignment left-hand side
    15. ReferenceError: reference to undefined property "x"
    16. SyntaxError: "0"-prefixed octal literals and octal escape seq. are deprecated
    17. SyntaxError: "use strict" not allowed in function with non-simple parameters
    18. SyntaxError: "x" is a reserved identifier
    19. SyntaxError: JSON.parse: bad parsing
    20. SyntaxError: Malformed formal parameter
    21. SyntaxError: Unexpected token
    22. SyntaxError: Using //@ to indicate sourceURL pragmas is deprecated. Use //# instead
    23. SyntaxError: a declaration in the head of a for-of loop can't have an initializer
    24. SyntaxError: applying the 'delete' operator to an unqualified name is deprecated
    25. SyntaxError: for-in loop head declarations may not have initializers
    26. SyntaxError: function statement requires a name
    27. SyntaxError: identifier starts immediately after numeric literal
    28. SyntaxError: illegal character
    29. SyntaxError: invalid regular expression flag "x"
    30. SyntaxError: missing ) after argument list
    31. SyntaxError: missing ) after condition
    32. SyntaxError: missing : after property id
    33. SyntaxError: missing ; before statement
    34. SyntaxError: missing = in const declaration
    35. SyntaxError: missing ] after element list
    36. SyntaxError: missing formal parameter
    37. SyntaxError: missing name after . operator
    38. SyntaxError: missing variable name
    39. SyntaxError: missing } after function body
    40. SyntaxError: missing } after property list
    41. SyntaxError: redeclaration of formal parameter "x"
    42. SyntaxError: return not in function
    43. SyntaxError: test for equality (==) mistyped as assignment (=)?
    44. SyntaxError: unterminated string literal
    45. TypeError: "x" has no properties
    46. TypeError: "x" is (not) "y"
    47. TypeError: "x" is not a constructor
    48. TypeError: "x" is not a function
    49. TypeError: "x" is not a non-null object
    50. TypeError: "x" is read-only
    51. TypeError: 'x' is not iterable
    52. TypeError: More arguments needed
    53. TypeError: Reduce of empty array with no initial value
    54. TypeError: X.prototype.y called on incompatible type
    55. TypeError: can't access dead object
    56. TypeError: can't access property "x" of "y"
    57. TypeError: can't assign to property "x" on "y": not an object
    58. TypeError: can't define property "x": "obj" is not extensible
    59. TypeError: can't delete non-configurable array element
    60. TypeError: can't redefine non-configurable property "x"
    61. TypeError: cannot use 'in' operator to search for 'x' in 'y'
    62. TypeError: cyclic object value
    63. TypeError: invalid 'instanceof' operand 'x'
    64. TypeError: invalid Array.prototype.sort argument
    65. TypeError: invalid arguments
    66. TypeError: invalid assignment to const "x"
    67. TypeError: property "x" is non-configurable and can't be deleted
    68. TypeError: setting getter-only property "x"
    69. TypeError: variable "x" redeclares argument
    70. URIError: malformed URI sequence
    71. Warning: -file- is being assigned a //# sourceMappingURL, but already has one
    72. Warning: 08/09 is not a legal ECMA-262 octal constant
    73. Warning: Date.prototype.toLocaleFormat is deprecated
    74. Warning: JavaScript 1.6's for-each-in loops are deprecated
    75. Warning: String.x is deprecated; use String.prototype.x instead
    76. Warning: expression closures are deprecated
    77. Warning: unreachable code after return statement
  13. 杂项
    1. JavaScript technologies overview
    2. 词汇语法
    3. JavaScript 数据结构
    4. Enumerability and ownership of properties
    5. Iteration protocols
    6. 严格模式
    7. Transitioning to strict mode
    8. Template literals
    9. 弃用特征