Working with objects

JavaScript is designed on a simple object-based paradigm. An object is a collection of properties, and a property is an association between a name (or key ) and a value. A property's value can be a function, in which case the property is known as a method. In addition to objects that are predefined in the browser, you can define your own objects. This chapter describes how to use objects, properties, functions, and methods, and how to create your own objects.

Objects overview

Objects in JavaScript, just as in many other programming languages, can be compared to objects in real life. The concept of objects in JavaScript can be understood with real life, tangible objects.

In JavaScript, an object is a standalone entity, with properties and type. Compare it with a cup, for example. A cup is an object, with properties. A cup has a color, a design, weight, a material it is made of, etc. The same way, JavaScript objects can have properties, which define their characteristics.

对象和特性

A JavaScript object has properties associated with it. A property of an object can be explained as a variable that is attached to the object. Object properties are basically the same as ordinary JavaScript variables, except for the attachment to objects. The properties of an object define the characteristics of the object. You access the properties of an object with a simple dot-notation:

objectName.propertyName
				

Like all JavaScript variables, both the object name (which could be a normal variable) and property name are case sensitive. You can define a property by assigning it a value. For example, let's create an object named myCar and give it properties named make , model ,和 year as follows:

var myCar = new Object();
myCar.make = 'Ford';
myCar.model = 'Mustang';
myCar.year = 1969;
				

The above example could also be written using an object initializer , which is a comma-delimited list of zero or more pairs of property names and associated values of an object, enclosed in curly braces ( {} ):

var myCar = {
    make: 'Ford',
    model: 'Mustang',
    year: 1969
};
				

Unassigned properties of an object are undefined (and not null ).

myCar.color; // undefined
				

Properties of JavaScript objects can also be accessed or set using a bracket notation (for more details see property accessors ). Objects are sometimes called associative arrays , since each property is associated with a string value that can be used to access it. So, for example, you could access the properties of the myCar object as follows:

myCar['make'] = 'Ford';
myCar['model'] = 'Mustang';
myCar['year'] = 1969;
				

An object property name can be any valid JavaScript string, or anything that can be converted to a string, including the empty string. However, any property name that is not a valid JavaScript identifier (for example, a property name that has a space or a hyphen, or that starts with a number) can only be accessed using the square bracket notation. This notation is also very useful when property names are to be dynamically determined (when the property name is not determined until runtime). Examples are as follows:

// four variables are created and assigned in a single go,
// separated by commas
var myObj = new Object(),
    str = 'myString',
    rand = Math.random(),
    obj = new Object();
myObj.type              = 'Dot syntax';
myObj['date created']   = 'String with space';
myObj[str]              = 'String value';
myObj[rand]             = 'Random Number';
myObj[obj]              = 'Object';
myObj['']               = 'Even an empty string';
console.log(myObj);
				

Please note that all keys in the square bracket notation are converted to string unless they're Symbols, since JavaScript object property names (keys) can only be strings or Symbols (at some point, private names will also be added as the class fields proposal progresses, but you won't use them with [] form). For example, in the above code, when the key obj is added to the myObj , JavaScript will call the obj.toString() method, and use this result string as the new key.

You can also access properties by using a string value that is stored in a variable:

var propertyName = 'make';
myCar[propertyName] = 'Ford';
propertyName = 'model';
myCar[propertyName] = 'Mustang';
				

You can use the bracket notation with for...in to iterate over all the enumerable properties of an object. To illustrate how this works, the following function displays the properties of the object when you pass the object and the object's name as arguments to the function:

function showProps(obj, objName) {
  var result = ``;
  for (var i in obj) {
    // obj.hasOwnProperty() is used to filter out properties from the object's prototype chain
    if (obj.hasOwnProperty(i)) {
      result += `${objName}.${i} = ${obj[i]}\n`;
    }
  }
  return result;
}
				

So, the function call showProps(myCar, "myCar") would return the following:

myCar.make = Ford
myCar.model = Mustang
myCar.year = 1969
				

Enumerate the properties of an object

Starting with ECMAScript 5 , there are three native ways to list/traverse object properties:

Before ECMAScript 5, there was no native way to list all properties of an object. However, this can be achieved with the following function:

function listAllProperties(o) {
	var objectToInspect;
	var result = [];
	for(objectToInspect = o; objectToInspect !== null;
           objectToInspect = Object.getPrototypeOf(objectToInspect)) {
        result = result.concat(
            Object.getOwnPropertyNames(objectToInspect)
        );
    }
	return result;
}
				

This can be useful to reveal "hidden" properties (properties in the prototype chain which are not accessible through the object, because another property has the same name earlier in the prototype chain). Listing accessible properties only can easily be done by removing duplicates in the array.

Creating new objects

JavaScript has a number of predefined objects. In addition, you can create your own objects. You can create an object using an object initializer . Alternatively, you can first create a constructor function and then instantiate an object invoking that function in conjunction with the new operator.

Using object initializers

In addition to creating objects using a constructor function, you can create objects using an object initializer . Using object initializers is sometimes referred to as creating objects with literal notation. "Object initializer" is consistent with the terminology used by C++.

The syntax for an object using an object initializer is:

var obj = { property_1:   value_1,   // property_# may be an identifier...
            2:            value_2,   // or a number...
            // ...,
            'property n': value_n }; // or a string
				

where obj is the name of the new object, each property_ i is an identifier (either a name, a number, or a string literal), and each value_ i is an expression whose value is assigned to the property_ i obj and assignment is optional; if you do not need to refer to this object elsewhere, you do not need to assign it to a variable. (Note that you may need to wrap the object literal in parentheses if the object appears where a statement is expected, so as not to have the literal be confused with a block statement.)

Object initializers are expressions, and each object initializer results in a new object being created whenever the statement in which it appears is executed. Identical object initializers create distinct objects that will not compare to each other as equal. Objects are created as if a call to new Object() were made; that is, objects made from object literal expressions are instances of Object .

The following statement creates an object and assigns it to the variable x if and only if the expression cond is true:

if (cond) var x = {greeting: 'hi there'};
				

The following example creates myHonda with three properties. Note that the engine property is also an object with its own properties.

var myHonda = {color: 'red', wheels: 4, engine: {cylinders: 4, size: 2.2}};
				

You can also use object initializers to create arrays. See array literals .

Using a constructor function

Alternatively, you can create an object with these two steps:

  1. Define the object type by writing a constructor function. There is a strong convention, with good reason, to use a capital initial letter.
  2. Create an instance of the object with new .

To define an object type, create a function for the object type that specifies its name, properties, and methods. For example, suppose you want to create an object type for cars. You want this type of object to be called Car , and you want it to have properties for make, model, and year. To do this, you would write the following function:

function Car(make, model, year) {
  this.make = make;
  this.model = model;
  this.year = year;
}
				

Notice the use of this to assign values to the object's properties based on the values passed to the function.

Now you can create an object called mycar as follows:

var mycar = new Car('Eagle', 'Talon TSi', 1993);
				

This statement creates mycar and assigns it the specified values for its properties. Then the value of mycar.make is the string "Eagle", mycar.year is the integer 1993, and so on.

You can create any number of Car objects by calls to new 。例如,

var kenscar = new Car('Nissan', '300ZX', 1992);
var vpgscar = new Car('Mazda', 'Miata', 1990);
				

An object can have a property that is itself another object. For example, suppose you define an object called person as follows:

function Person(name, age, sex) {
  this.name = name;
  this.age = age;
  this.sex = sex;
}
				

and then instantiate two new person objects as follows:

var rand = new Person('Rand McKinnon', 33, 'M');
var ken = new Person('Ken Jones', 39, 'M');
				

Then, you can rewrite the definition of Car to include an owner property that takes a person object, as follows:

function Car(make, model, year, owner) {
  this.make = make;
  this.model = model;
  this.year = year;
  this.owner = owner;
}
				

To instantiate the new objects, you then use the following:

var car1 = new Car('Eagle', 'Talon TSi', 1993, rand);
var car2 = new Car('Nissan', '300ZX', 1992, ken);
				

Notice that instead of passing a literal string or integer value when creating the new objects, the above statements pass the objects rand and ken as the arguments for the owners. Then if you want to find out the name of the owner of car2, you can access the following property:

car2.owner.name
				

Note that you can always add a property to a previously defined object. For example, the statement

car1.color = 'black';
				

adds a property color to car1, and assigns it a value of "black." However, this does not affect any other objects. To add the new property to all objects of the same type, you have to add the property to the definition of the Car object type.

使用 Object.create method

Objects can also be created using the Object.create() method. This method can be very useful, because it allows you to choose the prototype object for the object you want to create, without having to define a constructor function.

// Animal properties and method encapsulation
var Animal = {
  type: 'Invertebrates', // Default value of properties
  displayType: function() {  // Method which will display type of Animal
    console.log(this.type);
  }
};
// Create new animal type called animal1
var animal1 = Object.create(Animal);
animal1.displayType(); // Output:Invertebrates
// Create new animal type called Fishes
var fish = Object.create(Animal);
fish.type = 'Fishes';
fish.displayType(); // Output:Fishes
				

继承

All objects in JavaScript inherit from at least one other object. The object being inherited from is known as the prototype, and the inherited properties can be found in the prototype object of the constructor. See 继承和原型链 了解更多信息。

Indexing object properties

You can refer to a property of an object either by its property name or by its ordinal index. If you initially define a property by its name, you must always refer to it by its name, and if you initially define a property by an index, you must always refer to it by its index.

This restriction applies when you create an object and its properties with a constructor function (as we did previously with the Car object type) and when you define individual properties explicitly (for example, myCar.color = "red" ). If you initially define an object property with an index, such as myCar[5] = "25 mpg" , you subsequently refer to the property only as myCar[5] .

The exception to this rule is array-like object reflected from HTML, such as the forms array-like object. You can always refer to objects in these array-like objects by either their ordinal number (based on where they appear in the document) or their name (if defined). For example, if the second <FORM> tag in a document has a NAME attribute of "myForm", you can refer to the form as document.forms[1] or document.forms["myForm"] or document.forms.myForm .

Defining properties for an object type

You can add a property to a previously defined object type by using the prototype property. This defines a property that is shared by all objects of the specified type, rather than by just one instance of the object. The following code adds a color property to all objects of type Car , and then assigns a value to the color property of the object car1 .

Car.prototype.color = null;
car1.color = 'black';
				

prototype property of the Function object in the JavaScript 参考 了解更多信息。

定义方法

A method is a function associated with an object, or, simply put, a method is a property of an object that is a function. Methods are defined the way normal functions are defined, except that they have to be assigned as the property of an object. See also method definitions for more details. An example is:

objectName.methodname = functionName;
var myObj = {
  myMethod: function(params) {
    // ...do something
  }
  // OR THIS WORKS TOO
  myOtherMethod(params) {
    // ...do something else
  }
};
				

where objectName is an existing object, methodname is the name you are assigning to the method, and functionName is the name of the function.

You can then call the method in the context of the object as follows:

object.methodname(params);
				

You can define methods for an object type by including a method definition in the object constructor function. You could define a function that would format and display the properties of the previously-defined Car objects; for example,

function displayCar() {
  var result = `A Beautiful ${this.year} ${this.make} ${this.model}`;
  pretty_print(result);
}
				

where pretty_print is a function to display a horizontal rule and a string. Notice the use of this to refer to the object to which the method belongs.

You can make this function a method of Car by adding the statement

this.displayCar = displayCar;
				

to the object definition. So, the full definition of Car would now look like

function Car(make, model, year, owner) {
  this.make = make;
  this.model = model;
  this.year = year;
  this.owner = owner;
  this.displayCar = displayCar;
}
				

Then you can call the displayCar method for each of the objects as follows:

car1.displayCar();
car2.displayCar();
				

使用 this for object references

JavaScript has a special keyword, this , that you can use within a method to refer to the current object. For example, suppose you have 2 objects, Manager and Intern . Each object have their own name , age and job .  In the function sayHi() , notice there is this.name . When added to the 2 objects they can be called and returns the 'Hello, My name is' then adds the name value from that specific object. As shown below.

const Manager = {
  name: "John",
  age: 27,
  job: "Software Engineer"
}
const Intern= {
  name: "Ben",
  age: 21,
  job: "Software Engineer Intern"
}
function sayHi() {
    console.log('Hello, my name is', this.name)
}
// add sayHi function to both objects
Manager.sayHi = sayHi;
Intern.sayHi = sayHi;
Manager.sayHi() // Hello, my name is John'
Intern.sayHi() // Hello, my name is Ben'
				

this refers to the object that it is in. You can create a new function called howOldAmI() which logs a sentence saying how old the person is.

function howOldAmI (){
  console.log('I am ' + this.age + ' years old.')
}
Manager.howOldAmI = howOldAmI;
Manager.howOldAmI() // I am 27 years old.
				

Defining getters and setters

A getter is a method that gets the value of a specific property. A setter is a method that sets the value of a specific property. You can define getters and setters on any predefined core object or user-defined object that supports the addition of new properties.

Getters and setters can be either

When defining getters and setters using object initializers all you need to do is to prefix a getter method with get and a setter method with set . Of course, the getter method must not expect a parameter, while the setter method expects exactly one parameter (the new value to set). For instance:

var o = {
  a: 7,
  get b() {
    return this.a + 1;
  },
  set c(x) {
    this.a = x / 2;
  }
};
console.log(o.a); // 7
console.log(o.b); // 8 <-- At this point the get b() method is initiated.
o.c = 50;         //   <-- At this point the set c(x) method is initiated
console.log(o.a); // 25
				

o object's properties are:

Please note that function names of getters and setters defined in an object literal using "[gs]et property ()" (as opposed to __define[GS]etter__ ) are not the names of the getters themselves, even though the [gs]et propertyName (){ } syntax may mislead you to think otherwise.

Getters and setters can also be added to an object at any time after creation using the Object.defineProperties method. This method's first parameter is the object on which you want to define the getter or setter. The second parameter is an object whose property names are the getter or setter names, and whose property values are objects for defining the getter or setter functions. Here's an example that defines the same getter and setter used in the previous example:

var o = { a: 0 };
Object.defineProperties(o, {
    'b': { get: function() { return this.a + 1; } },
    'c': { set: function(x) { this.a = x / 2; } }
});
o.c = 10; // Runs the setter, which assigns 10 / 2 (5) to the 'a' property
console.log(o.b); // Runs the getter, which yields a + 1 or 6
				

Which of the two forms to choose depends on your programming style and task at hand. If you already go for the object initializer when defining a prototype you will probably most of the time choose the first form. This form is more compact and natural. However, if you need to add getters and setters later — because you did not write the prototype or particular object — then the second form is the only possible form. The second form probably best represents the dynamic nature of JavaScript — but it can make the code hard to read and understand.

Deleting properties

You can remove a non-inherited property by using the delete operator. The following code shows how to remove a property.

// Creates a new object, myobj, with two properties, a and b.
var myobj = new Object;
myobj.a = 5;
myobj.b = 12;
// Removes the a property, leaving myobj with only the b property.
delete myobj.a;
console.log ('a' in myobj); // output: "false"
				

You can also use delete to delete a global variable if the var keyword was not used to declare the variable:

g = 17;
delete g;
				

Comparing objects

In JavaScript, objects are a reference type. Two distinct objects are never equal, even if they have the same properties. Only comparing the same object reference with itself yields true.

// Two variables, two distinct objects with the same properties
var fruit = {name: 'apple'};
var fruitbear = {name: 'apple'};
fruit == fruitbear; // return false
fruit === fruitbear; // return false
				
// Two variables, a single object
var fruit = {name: 'apple'};
var fruitbear = fruit;  // Assign fruit object reference to fruitbear
// Here fruit and fruitbear are pointing to same object
fruit == fruitbear; // return true
fruit === fruitbear; // return true
fruit.name = 'grape';
console.log(fruitbear); // output: { name: "grape" }, instead of { name: "apple" }
				

For more information about comparison operators, see Comparison operators .

另请参阅

  1. JavaScript
  2. 教程:
  3. 完整初学者
    1. JavaScript 基础
    2. JavaScript 第一步
    3. JavaScript 构建块
    4. 引入 JavaScript 对象
  4. JavaScript 指南
    1. 介绍
    2. 语法和类型
    3. 控制流程和错误处理
    4. 循环和迭代
    5. 函数
    6. 表达式和运算符
    7. 数字和日期
    8. 文本格式
    9. 正则表达式
    10. Indexed collections
    11. Keyed collections
    12. Working with objects
    13. 对象模型的细节
    14. Using promises
    15. 迭代器和生成器
    16. Meta programming
    17. JavaScript 模块
  5. 中间体
    1. Client-side JavaScript frameworks
    2. 客户端侧 Web API
    3. 重新介绍 JavaScript
    4. JavaScript 数据结构
    5. 相等比较和相同
    6. 闭包
  6. 高级
    1. 继承和原型链
    2. 严格模式
    3. JavaScript 类型数组
    4. 内存管理
    5. 并发模型和事件循环
  7. 参考:
  8. 内置对象
    1. AggregateError
    2. Array
    3. ArrayBuffer
    4. AsyncFunction
    5. Atomics
    6. BigInt
    7. BigInt64Array
    8. BigUint64Array
    9. Boolean
    10. DataView
    11. Date
    12. Error
    13. EvalError
    14. FinalizationRegistry
    15. Float32Array
    16. Float64Array
    17. Function
    18. Generator
    19. GeneratorFunction
    20. Infinity
    21. Int16Array
    22. Int32Array
    23. Int8Array
    24. InternalError
    25. Intl
    26. JSON
    27. Map
    28. Math
    29. NaN
    30. Number
    31. Object
    32. Promise
    33. Proxy
    34. RangeError
    35. ReferenceError
    36. Reflect
    37. RegExp
    38. Set
    39. SharedArrayBuffer
    40. String
    41. Symbol
    42. SyntaxError
    43. TypeError
    44. TypedArray
    45. URIError
    46. Uint16Array
    47. Uint32Array
    48. Uint8Array
    49. Uint8ClampedArray
    50. WeakMap
    51. WeakRef
    52. WeakSet
    53. WebAssembly
    54. decodeURI()
    55. decodeURIComponent()
    56. encodeURI()
    57. encodeURIComponent()
    58. escape()
    59. eval()
    60. globalThis
    61. isFinite()
    62. isNaN()
    63. null
    64. parseFloat()
    65. parseInt()
    66. undefined
    67. unescape()
    68. uneval()
  9. 表达式 & 运算符
    1. Addition (+)
    2. Addition assignment (+=)
    3. Assignment (=)
    4. Bitwise AND (&)
    5. Bitwise AND assignment (&=)
    6. Bitwise NOT (~)
    7. Bitwise OR (|)
    8. Bitwise OR assignment (|=)
    9. Bitwise XOR (^)
    10. Bitwise XOR assignment (^=)
    11. Comma operator (,)
    12. 条件 (三元) 运算符
    13. Decrement (--)
    14. Destructuring assignment
    15. Division (/)
    16. Division assignment (/=)
    17. Equality (==)
    18. Exponentiation (**)
    19. Exponentiation assignment (**=)
    20. Function expression
    21. Greater than (>)
    22. Greater than or equal (>=)
    23. Grouping operator ( )
    24. Increment (++)
    25. Inequality (!=)
    26. Left shift (<<)
    27. Left shift assignment (<<=)
    28. Less than (<)
    29. Less than or equal (<=)
    30. Logical AND (&&)
    31. Logical AND assignment (&&=)
    32. Logical NOT (!)
    33. Logical OR (||)
    34. Logical OR assignment (||=)
    35. Logical nullish assignment (??=)
    36. Multiplication (*)
    37. Multiplication assignment (*=)
    38. Nullish coalescing operator (??)
    39. Object initializer
    40. 运算符优先级
    41. Optional chaining (?.)
    42. Pipeline operator (|>)
    43. 特性访问器
    44. Remainder (%)
    45. Remainder assignment (%=)
    46. Right shift (>>)
    47. Right shift assignment (>>=)
    48. Spread syntax (...)
    49. Strict equality (===)
    50. Strict inequality (!==)
    51. Subtraction (-)
    52. Subtraction assignment (-=)
    53. Unary negation (-)
    54. Unary plus (+)
    55. Unsigned right shift (>>>)
    56. Unsigned right shift assignment (>>>=)
    57. 异步函数表达式
    58. await
    59. class expression
    60. delete operator
    61. function* 表达式
    62. in operator
    63. instanceof
    64. new operator
    65. new.target
    66. super
    67. this
    68. typeof
    69. void 运算符
    70. yield
    71. yield*
  10. 语句 & 声明
    1. async function
    2. block
    3. break
    4. class
    5. const
    6. continue
    7. debugger
    8. do...while
    9. empty
    10. export
    11. for
    12. for await...of
    13. for...in
    14. for...of
    15. 函数声明
    16. function*
    17. if...else
    18. import
    19. import.meta
    20. label
    21. let
    22. return
    23. switch
    24. throw
    25. try...catch
    26. var
    27. while
    28. with
  11. 函数
    1. 箭头函数表达式
    2. 默认参数
    3. 方法定义
    4. 其余参数
    5. 自变量对象
    6. getter
    7. setter
    1. Private class fields
    2. Public class fields
    3. 构造函数
    4. extends
    5. static
  12. 错误
    1. Error: Permission denied to access property "x"
    2. InternalError: too much recursion
    3. RangeError: argument is not a valid code point
    4. RangeError: invalid array length
    5. RangeError: invalid date
    6. RangeError: precision is out of range
    7. RangeError: radix must be an integer
    8. RangeError: repeat count must be less than infinity
    9. RangeError: repeat count must be non-negative
    10. ReferenceError: "x" is not defined
    11. ReferenceError: assignment to undeclared variable "x"
    12. ReferenceError: can't access lexical declaration`X' before initialization
    13. ReferenceError: deprecated caller or arguments usage
    14. ReferenceError: invalid assignment left-hand side
    15. ReferenceError: reference to undefined property "x"
    16. SyntaxError: "0"-prefixed octal literals and octal escape seq. are deprecated
    17. SyntaxError: "use strict" not allowed in function with non-simple parameters
    18. SyntaxError: "x" is a reserved identifier
    19. SyntaxError: JSON.parse: bad parsing
    20. SyntaxError: Malformed formal parameter
    21. SyntaxError: Unexpected token
    22. SyntaxError: Using //@ to indicate sourceURL pragmas is deprecated. Use //# instead
    23. SyntaxError: a declaration in the head of a for-of loop can't have an initializer
    24. SyntaxError: applying the 'delete' operator to an unqualified name is deprecated
    25. SyntaxError: for-in loop head declarations may not have initializers
    26. SyntaxError: function statement requires a name
    27. SyntaxError: identifier starts immediately after numeric literal
    28. SyntaxError: illegal character
    29. SyntaxError: invalid regular expression flag "x"
    30. SyntaxError: missing ) after argument list
    31. SyntaxError: missing ) after condition
    32. SyntaxError: missing : after property id
    33. SyntaxError: missing ; before statement
    34. SyntaxError: missing = in const declaration
    35. SyntaxError: missing ] after element list
    36. SyntaxError: missing formal parameter
    37. SyntaxError: missing name after . operator
    38. SyntaxError: missing variable name
    39. SyntaxError: missing } after function body
    40. SyntaxError: missing } after property list
    41. SyntaxError: redeclaration of formal parameter "x"
    42. SyntaxError: return not in function
    43. SyntaxError: test for equality (==) mistyped as assignment (=)?
    44. SyntaxError: unterminated string literal
    45. TypeError: "x" has no properties
    46. TypeError: "x" is (not) "y"
    47. TypeError: "x" is not a constructor
    48. TypeError: "x" is not a function
    49. TypeError: "x" is not a non-null object
    50. TypeError: "x" is read-only
    51. TypeError: 'x' is not iterable
    52. TypeError: More arguments needed
    53. TypeError: Reduce of empty array with no initial value
    54. TypeError: X.prototype.y called on incompatible type
    55. TypeError: can't access dead object
    56. TypeError: can't access property "x" of "y"
    57. TypeError: can't assign to property "x" on "y": not an object
    58. TypeError: can't define property "x": "obj" is not extensible
    59. TypeError: can't delete non-configurable array element
    60. TypeError: can't redefine non-configurable property "x"
    61. TypeError: cannot use 'in' operator to search for 'x' in 'y'
    62. TypeError: cyclic object value
    63. TypeError: invalid 'instanceof' operand 'x'
    64. TypeError: invalid Array.prototype.sort argument
    65. TypeError: invalid arguments
    66. TypeError: invalid assignment to const "x"
    67. TypeError: property "x" is non-configurable and can't be deleted
    68. TypeError: setting getter-only property "x"
    69. TypeError: variable "x" redeclares argument
    70. URIError: malformed URI sequence
    71. Warning: -file- is being assigned a //# sourceMappingURL, but already has one
    72. Warning: 08/09 is not a legal ECMA-262 octal constant
    73. Warning: Date.prototype.toLocaleFormat is deprecated
    74. Warning: JavaScript 1.6's for-each-in loops are deprecated
    75. Warning: String.x is deprecated; use String.prototype.x instead
    76. Warning: expression closures are deprecated
    77. Warning: unreachable code after return statement
  13. 杂项
    1. JavaScript technologies overview
    2. 词汇语法
    3. JavaScript 数据结构
    4. Enumerability and ownership of properties
    5. Iteration protocols
    6. 严格模式
    7. Transitioning to strict mode
    8. Template literals
    9. 弃用特征