相等比较和相同

ES2015 中有 4 种相等算法:

JavaScript 提供 3 种不同值比较运算:

Which operation you choose depends on what sort of comparison you are looking to perform. Briefly:

Note that the distinction between these all have to do with their handling of primitives; none of them compares whether the parameters are conceptually similar in structure. For any non-primitive objects x and y which have the same structure but are distinct objects themselves, all of the above forms will evaluate to false .

严格相等使用 ===

Strict equality compares two values for equality. Neither value is implicitly converted to some other value before being compared. If the values have different types, the values are considered unequal. If the values have the same type, are not numbers, and have the same value, they're considered equal. Finally, if both values are numbers, they're considered equal if they're both not NaN and are the same value, or if one is +0 and one is -0 .

var num = 0;
var obj = new String('0');
var str = '0';
console.log(num === num); // true
console.log(obj === obj); // true
console.log(str === str); // true
console.log(num === obj); // false
console.log(num === str); // false
console.log(obj === str); // false
console.log(null === undefined); // false
console.log(obj === null); // false
console.log(obj === undefined); // false
			

Strict equality is almost always the correct comparison operation to use. For all values except numbers, it uses the obvious semantics: a value is only equal to itself. For numbers it uses slightly different semantics to gloss over two different edge cases. The first is that floating point zero is either positively or negatively signed. This is useful in representing certain mathematical solutions, but as most situations don't care about the difference between +0 and -0 , strict equality treats them as the same value. The second is that floating point includes the concept of a not-a-number value, NaN , to represent the solution to certain ill-defined mathematical problems: negative infinity added to positive infinity, for example. Strict equality treats NaN as unequal to every other value -- including itself. (The only case in which (x !== x) is true is when x is NaN .)

Loose equality using ==

Loose equality compares two values for equality, after converting both values to a common type. After conversions (one or both sides may undergo conversions), the final equality comparison is performed exactly as === performs it. Loose equality is symmetric : A == B always has identical semantics to B == A for any values of A and B (except for the order of applied conversions).

The equality comparison is performed as follows for operands of the various types:

Operand B
Undefined Null Number String Boolean Object
Operand A Undefined true true false false false false
Null true true false false false false
Number false false A === B A === ToNumber(B) A === ToNumber(B) A == ToPrimitive(B)
String false false ToNumber(A) === B A === B ToNumber(A) === ToNumber(B) A == ToPrimitive(B)
Boolean false false ToNumber(A) === B ToNumber(A) === ToNumber(B) A === B ToNumber(A) == ToPrimitive(B)
Object false false ToPrimitive(A) == B ToPrimitive(A) == B ToPrimitive(A) == ToNumber(B) A === B

在上表中, ToNumber(A) attempts to convert its argument to a number before comparison. Its behavior is equivalent to +A (the unary + operator). ToPrimitive(A) attempts to convert its object argument to a primitive value, by attempting to invoke varying sequences of A.toString and A.valueOf methods on A .

Traditionally, and according to ECMAScript, all objects are loosely unequal to undefined and null . But most browsers permit a very narrow class of objects (specifically, the document.all object for any page), in some contexts, to act as if they emulate the value undefined . Loose equality is one such context: null == A and undefined == A evaluate to true if, and only if, A is an object that emulates undefined . In all other cases an object is never loosely equal to undefined or null .

var num = 0;
var obj = new String('0');
var str = '0';
console.log(num == num); // true
console.log(obj == obj); // true
console.log(str == str); // true
console.log(num == obj); // true
console.log(num == str); // true
console.log(obj == str); // true
console.log(null == undefined); // true
// both false, except in rare cases
console.log(obj == null);
console.log(obj == undefined);
			

In most cases, using loose equality is discouraged. The result of a comparison using strict equality is easier to predict, and may evaluate more quickly due to the lack of type coercion.

同值相等

Same-value equality addresses a final use case: determining whether two values are functionally identical in all contexts. (This use case demonstrates an instance of the Liskov substitution principle .) One instance occurs when an attempt is made to mutate an immutable property:

// Add an immutable NEGATIVE_ZERO property to the Number constructor.
Object.defineProperty(Number, 'NEGATIVE_ZERO',
                      { value: -0, writable: false, configurable: false, enumerable: false });
function attemptMutation(v) {
  Object.defineProperty(Number, 'NEGATIVE_ZERO', { value: v });
}
			

Object.defineProperty will throw an exception when attempting to change an immutable property, but it does nothing if no actual change is requested. If v is -0 , no change has been requested, and no error will be thrown. Internally, when an immutable property is redefined, the newly-specified value is compared against the current value using same-value equality.

Same-value equality is provided by the Object.is 方法。

同值零相等

Similar to same-value equality, but +0 and -0 are considered equal.

Abstract equality, strict equality, and same value in the specification

In ES5, the comparison performed by == is described in Section 11.9.3, The Abstract Equality Algorithm === comparison is 11.9.6, The Strict Equality Algorithm . (Go look at these. They're brief and readable. Hint: read the strict equality algorithm first.) ES5 also describes, in Section 9.12, The SameValue Algorithm for use internally by the JS engine. It's largely the same as the Strict Equality Algorithm, except that 11.9.6.4 and 9.12.4 differ in handling Number s. ES2015 simply proposes to expose this algorithm through Object.is .

We can see that with double and triple equals, with the exception of doing a type check upfront in 11.9.6.1, the Strict Equality Algorithm is a subset of the Abstract Equality Algorithm, because 11.9.6.2–7 correspond to 11.9.3.1.a–f.

A model for understanding equality comparisons?

Prior to ES2015, you might have said of double equals and triple equals that one is an "enhanced" version of the other. For example, someone might say that double equals is an extended version of triple equals, because the former does everything that the latter does, but with type conversion on its operands. E.g., 6 == "6" . (Alternatively, someone might say that double equals is the baseline, and triple equals is an enhanced version, because it requires the two operands to be the same type, so it adds an extra constraint. Which one is the better model for understanding depends on how you choose to view things.)

However, this way of thinking about the built-in sameness operators is not a model that can be stretched to allow a place for ES2015's Object.is on this "spectrum". Object.is isn't simply "looser" than double equals or "stricter" than triple equals, nor does it fit somewhere in between (i.e., being both stricter than double equals, but looser than triple equals). We can see from the sameness comparisons table below that this is due to the way that Object.is handles NaN . Notice that if Object.is(NaN, NaN) evaluated to false , we could say that it fits on the loose/strict spectrum as an even stricter form of triple equals, one that distinguishes between -0 and +0 NaN handling means this is untrue, however. Unfortunately, Object.is simply has to be thought of in terms of its specific characteristics, rather than its looseness or strictness with regard to the equality operators.

相同比较
x y == === Object.is SameValueZero
undefined undefined true true true true
null null true true true true
true true true true true true
false false true true true true
'foo' 'foo' true true true true
0 0 true true true true
+0 -0 true true false true
+0 0 true true true true
-0 0 true true false true
0 false true false false false
"" false true false false false
"" 0 true false false false
'0' 0 true false false false
'17' 17 true false false false
[1, 2] '1,2' true false false false
new String('foo') 'foo' true false false false
null undefined true false false false
null false false false false false
undefined false false false false false
{ foo: 'bar' } { foo: 'bar' } false false false false
new String('foo') new String('foo') false false false false
0 null false false false false
0 NaN false false false false
'foo' NaN false false false false
NaN NaN false false true true

When to use Object.is versus triple equals

In general, the only time Object.is 's special behavior towards zeros is likely to be of interest is in the pursuit of certain meta-programming schemes, especially regarding property descriptors, when it is desirable for your work to mirror some of the characteristics of Object.defineProperty . If your use case does not require this, it is suggested to avoid Object.is and use === instead. Even if your requirements involve having comparisons between two NaN values evaluate to true , generally it is easier to special-case the NaN checks (using the isNaN method available from previous versions of ECMAScript) than it is to work out how surrounding computations might affect the sign of any zeros you encounter in your comparison.

Here's a non-exhaustive list of built-in methods and operators that might cause a distinction between -0 and +0 to manifest itself in your code:

- (unary negation)
let stoppingForce = obj.mass * -obj.velocity;
					

obj.velocity is 0 (or computes to 0 ), a -0 is introduced at that place and propogates out into stoppingForce .

Math.atan2
Math.ceil
Math.pow
Math.round
In some cases,it's possible for a -0 to be introduced into an expression as a return value of these methods even when no -0 exists as one of the parameters. For example, using Math.pow to raise -Infinity to the power of any negative, odd exponent evaluates to -0 . Refer to the documentation for the individual methods.
Math.floor
Math.max
Math.min
Math.sin
Math.sqrt
Math.tan
It's possible to get a -0 return value out of these methods in some cases where a -0 exists as one of the parameters. E.g., Math.min(-0, +0) evaluates to -0 . Refer to the documentation for the individual methods.
~
<<
>>
Each of these operators uses the ToInt32 algorithm internally. Since there is only one representation for 0 in the internal 32-bit integer type, -0 will not survive a round trip after an inverse operation. E.g., both Object.is(~~(-0), -0) and Object.is(-0 << 2 >> 2, -0) evaluate to false .

Relying on Object.is when the signedness of zeros is not taken into account can be hazardous. Of course, when the intent is to distinguish between -0 and +0 , it does exactly what's desired.

Caveat: Object.is and NaN

Object.is specification treats all instances of NaN as the same object. However, since typed arrays are available, we can have distinct instances, which don't behave identically in all contexts. For example:

var f2b = x => new Uint8Array(new Float64Array([x]).buffer);
var b2f = x => new Float64Array(x.buffer)[0];
var n = f2b(NaN);
n[0] = 1;
var nan2 = b2f(n);
nan2;
// > NaN
Object.is(nan2, NaN);
// > true
f2b(NaN);
// > Uint8Array(8) [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 248,127)
f2b(nan2);
// > Uint8Array(8) [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 248,127)
			

另请参阅

Metadata

  1. JavaScript
  2. 教程:
  3. 完整初学者
    1. JavaScript 基础
    2. JavaScript 第一步
    3. JavaScript 构建块
    4. 引入 JavaScript 对象
  4. JavaScript 指南
    1. 介绍
    2. 语法和类型
    3. 控制流程和错误处理
    4. 循环和迭代
    5. 函数
    6. 表达式和运算符
    7. 数字和日期
    8. 文本格式
    9. 正则表达式
    10. Indexed collections
    11. Keyed collections
    12. Working with objects
    13. 对象模型的细节
    14. Using promises
    15. 迭代器和生成器
    16. Meta programming
    17. JavaScript 模块
  5. 中间体
    1. Client-side JavaScript frameworks
    2. 客户端侧 Web API
    3. 重新介绍 JavaScript
    4. JavaScript 数据结构
    5. 相等比较和相同
    6. 闭包
  6. 高级
    1. 继承和原型链
    2. 严格模式
    3. JavaScript 类型数组
    4. 内存管理
    5. 并发模型和事件循环
  7. 参考:
  8. 内置对象
    1. AggregateError
    2. Array
    3. ArrayBuffer
    4. AsyncFunction
    5. Atomics
    6. BigInt
    7. BigInt64Array
    8. BigUint64Array
    9. Boolean
    10. DataView
    11. Date
    12. Error
    13. EvalError
    14. FinalizationRegistry
    15. Float32Array
    16. Float64Array
    17. Function
    18. Generator
    19. GeneratorFunction
    20. Infinity
    21. Int16Array
    22. Int32Array
    23. Int8Array
    24. InternalError
    25. Intl
    26. JSON
    27. Map
    28. Math
    29. NaN
    30. Number
    31. Object
    32. Promise
    33. Proxy
    34. RangeError
    35. ReferenceError
    36. Reflect
    37. RegExp
    38. Set
    39. SharedArrayBuffer
    40. String
    41. Symbol
    42. SyntaxError
    43. TypeError
    44. TypedArray
    45. URIError
    46. Uint16Array
    47. Uint32Array
    48. Uint8Array
    49. Uint8ClampedArray
    50. WeakMap
    51. WeakRef
    52. WeakSet
    53. WebAssembly
    54. decodeURI()
    55. decodeURIComponent()
    56. encodeURI()
    57. encodeURIComponent()
    58. escape()
    59. eval()
    60. globalThis
    61. isFinite()
    62. isNaN()
    63. null
    64. parseFloat()
    65. parseInt()
    66. undefined
    67. unescape()
    68. uneval()
  9. 表达式 & 运算符
    1. Addition (+)
    2. Addition assignment (+=)
    3. Assignment (=)
    4. Bitwise AND (&)
    5. Bitwise AND assignment (&=)
    6. Bitwise NOT (~)
    7. Bitwise OR (|)
    8. Bitwise OR assignment (|=)
    9. Bitwise XOR (^)
    10. Bitwise XOR assignment (^=)
    11. Comma operator (,)
    12. 条件 (三元) 运算符
    13. Decrement (--)
    14. Destructuring assignment
    15. Division (/)
    16. Division assignment (/=)
    17. Equality (==)
    18. Exponentiation (**)
    19. Exponentiation assignment (**=)
    20. Function expression
    21. Greater than (>)
    22. Greater than or equal (>=)
    23. Grouping operator ( )
    24. Increment (++)
    25. Inequality (!=)
    26. Left shift (<<)
    27. Left shift assignment (<<=)
    28. Less than (<)
    29. Less than or equal (<=)
    30. Logical AND (&&)
    31. Logical AND assignment (&&=)
    32. Logical NOT (!)
    33. Logical OR (||)
    34. Logical OR assignment (||=)
    35. Logical nullish assignment (??=)
    36. Multiplication (*)
    37. Multiplication assignment (*=)
    38. Nullish coalescing operator (??)
    39. Object initializer
    40. 运算符优先级
    41. Optional chaining (?.)
    42. Pipeline operator (|>)
    43. 特性访问器
    44. Remainder (%)
    45. Remainder assignment (%=)
    46. Right shift (>>)
    47. Right shift assignment (>>=)
    48. Spread syntax (...)
    49. Strict equality (===)
    50. Strict inequality (!==)
    51. Subtraction (-)
    52. Subtraction assignment (-=)
    53. Unary negation (-)
    54. Unary plus (+)
    55. Unsigned right shift (>>>)
    56. Unsigned right shift assignment (>>>=)
    57. 异步函数表达式
    58. await
    59. class expression
    60. delete operator
    61. function* 表达式
    62. in operator
    63. instanceof
    64. new operator
    65. new.target
    66. super
    67. this
    68. typeof
    69. void 运算符
    70. yield
    71. yield*
  10. 语句 & 声明
    1. async function
    2. block
    3. break
    4. class
    5. const
    6. continue
    7. debugger
    8. do...while
    9. empty
    10. export
    11. for
    12. for await...of
    13. for...in
    14. for...of
    15. 函数声明
    16. function*
    17. if...else
    18. import
    19. import.meta
    20. label
    21. let
    22. return
    23. switch
    24. throw
    25. try...catch
    26. var
    27. while
    28. with
  11. 函数
    1. 箭头函数表达式
    2. 默认参数
    3. 方法定义
    4. 其余参数
    5. 自变量对象
    6. getter
    7. setter
    1. Private class fields
    2. Public class fields
    3. 构造函数
    4. extends
    5. static
  12. 错误
    1. Error: Permission denied to access property "x"
    2. InternalError: too much recursion
    3. RangeError: argument is not a valid code point
    4. RangeError: invalid array length
    5. RangeError: invalid date
    6. RangeError: precision is out of range
    7. RangeError: radix must be an integer
    8. RangeError: repeat count must be less than infinity
    9. RangeError: repeat count must be non-negative
    10. ReferenceError: "x" is not defined
    11. ReferenceError: assignment to undeclared variable "x"
    12. ReferenceError: can't access lexical declaration`X' before initialization
    13. ReferenceError: deprecated caller or arguments usage
    14. ReferenceError: invalid assignment left-hand side
    15. ReferenceError: reference to undefined property "x"
    16. SyntaxError: "0"-prefixed octal literals and octal escape seq. are deprecated
    17. SyntaxError: "use strict" not allowed in function with non-simple parameters
    18. SyntaxError: "x" is a reserved identifier
    19. SyntaxError: JSON.parse: bad parsing
    20. SyntaxError: Malformed formal parameter
    21. SyntaxError: Unexpected token
    22. SyntaxError: Using //@ to indicate sourceURL pragmas is deprecated. Use //# instead
    23. SyntaxError: a declaration in the head of a for-of loop can't have an initializer
    24. SyntaxError: applying the 'delete' operator to an unqualified name is deprecated
    25. SyntaxError: for-in loop head declarations may not have initializers
    26. SyntaxError: function statement requires a name
    27. SyntaxError: identifier starts immediately after numeric literal
    28. SyntaxError: illegal character
    29. SyntaxError: invalid regular expression flag "x"
    30. SyntaxError: missing ) after argument list
    31. SyntaxError: missing ) after condition
    32. SyntaxError: missing : after property id
    33. SyntaxError: missing ; before statement
    34. SyntaxError: missing = in const declaration
    35. SyntaxError: missing ] after element list
    36. SyntaxError: missing formal parameter
    37. SyntaxError: missing name after . operator
    38. SyntaxError: missing variable name
    39. SyntaxError: missing } after function body
    40. SyntaxError: missing } after property list
    41. SyntaxError: redeclaration of formal parameter "x"
    42. SyntaxError: return not in function
    43. SyntaxError: test for equality (==) mistyped as assignment (=)?
    44. SyntaxError: unterminated string literal
    45. TypeError: "x" has no properties
    46. TypeError: "x" is (not) "y"
    47. TypeError: "x" is not a constructor
    48. TypeError: "x" is not a function
    49. TypeError: "x" is not a non-null object
    50. TypeError: "x" is read-only
    51. TypeError: 'x' is not iterable
    52. TypeError: More arguments needed
    53. TypeError: Reduce of empty array with no initial value
    54. TypeError: X.prototype.y called on incompatible type
    55. TypeError: can't access dead object
    56. TypeError: can't access property "x" of "y"
    57. TypeError: can't assign to property "x" on "y": not an object
    58. TypeError: can't define property "x": "obj" is not extensible
    59. TypeError: can't delete non-configurable array element
    60. TypeError: can't redefine non-configurable property "x"
    61. TypeError: cannot use 'in' operator to search for 'x' in 'y'
    62. TypeError: cyclic object value
    63. TypeError: invalid 'instanceof' operand 'x'
    64. TypeError: invalid Array.prototype.sort argument
    65. TypeError: invalid arguments
    66. TypeError: invalid assignment to const "x"
    67. TypeError: property "x" is non-configurable and can't be deleted
    68. TypeError: setting getter-only property "x"
    69. TypeError: variable "x" redeclares argument
    70. URIError: malformed URI sequence
    71. Warning: -file- is being assigned a //# sourceMappingURL, but already has one
    72. Warning: 08/09 is not a legal ECMA-262 octal constant
    73. Warning: Date.prototype.toLocaleFormat is deprecated
    74. Warning: JavaScript 1.6's for-each-in loops are deprecated
    75. Warning: String.x is deprecated; use String.prototype.x instead
    76. Warning: expression closures are deprecated
    77. Warning: unreachable code after return statement
  13. 杂项
    1. JavaScript technologies overview
    2. 词汇语法
    3. JavaScript 数据结构
    4. Enumerability and ownership of properties
    5. Iteration protocols
    6. 严格模式
    7. Transitioning to strict mode
    8. Template literals
    9. 弃用特征